A Educação do Homem Antigo – ROMA 197


 

Roma, assim como as outras civilizações, foi, a princípio, uma comunidade primitiva com “reis” eleitos.

A sociedade de classes que passou a existir em Roma Antiga era escravocrata. Havia os patrícios (grandes proprietários de terra) e os plebeus (pequenos proprietários), que depois de reivindicações conseguiram igualdade política.

“A agricultura, a guerra e a política constituíam o programa que um romano nobre devia realizar”.

Em princípio, o proprietário trabalhava em suas terras juntamente com seus servos. Seus filhos o acompanhavam e era desta maneira que recebiam a educação: observando e ajudando nas tarefas simples.

A influência política era fruto da extensão de terras do sujeito. Assim como no exército: aquele com mais posse de terras assegurava o melhor posto, o que era vantajoso porque lhe permitia alcançar mais terras e escravos, aumentando assim sua riqueza.

A instrução dos filhos da nobreza era dada por um escravo letrado, mas não era muito aprofundada, resumindo-se basicamente às primeiras letras.

Com o aumento das extensões de terras, os proprietários tiveram necessidade de mais escravos. O trabalho começou a se dividir cada vez mais e cada homem passou a ter função em um setor especializado. O nobre já não vive perto de suas terras e não trabalha com seus escravos, fazendo com que o trabalho seja desprezado.

Os escravos viviam acorrentados e eram vigiados, uma vez que o número deles era muito grande e havia o medo de uma rebelião. E, aqueles mais fortes, eram educados como gladiadores, conseguindo com isso, além de se proteger contra eles, distrair a população.

Entretanto, por serem sempre castigados, os escravos não rendiam muito no trabalho. Os proprietários, então, arrumaram uma outra maneira de lucrar com eles: ofereciam prêmios para os que trabalhavam melhor e havia a possibilidade de comprar sua liberdade.

Estes escravos libertos e também os pequenos proprietários falidos passaram a se dedicar ao comércio e às indústrias livres. Tudo o que estes escravos sabiam era fruto do ofício que desempenhavam na casa de seus antigos senhores ou da instrução de um outro escravo (já estes proprietários tiveram que aprender neste momento, com os escravos instruídos).

E, por haver a necessidade de uma nova educação, apareceram alguns professores: para a educação primária – ludimagister -, para a média – gramáticos – e para a superior – retores.

A primeira escola romana surge em 449 a.C. Era particular e destinada às famílias menos ricas (porque os nobres pagavam professores particulares). Ela não dispunha de muito material e as lições eram bastante monótonas. E como qualquer outro serviço que se ganhava um salário, a função de professor era vista com desprezo.

Os mais ricos também começaram a perceber a importância de instruir-se além das primeiras letras, faltava-lhes uma cultura especializada que conduzia aos altos cargos oficiais.

Com a criação de um exército permanente e uma profissão para quem participava dele, o romano não era mais obrigado a serví-lo, sobrando-lhe tempo – ócio – para fazer outras coisas.

A retórica ensinada até então era em grego e por isso não atingiu um grande número da população, porém, quando passou a ser ministrada em latim, causou descontentamento por parte dos patrícios. Isso ocasionou no fechamento das escolas. Mas, posteriormente, retornou com mais força.

Os comerciantes criaram as escolas públicas primárias; as superiores também foram exigência dessas classes, uma vez que desta maneira conseguiam direcionar melhor politicamente os seus negócios. “A aristocracia senatorial não foi só obrigada a aceitar as novidades, como ainda teve de apressar-se para não perder o passo. O que ignorasse as artes da retórica corria o risco de ser vencido nessas lutas oratórias, cujo prêmio era o brilho e o poder”.

O filho de um homem rico ingressava na escola do magister aos 7 anos, com 12, iria para a escola do gramático e, aos 16, ao ensinamento do retor. Este último ensinava tudo que era importante para a burocracia do Império e não mais a retórica, como acontecia na República.

O Império aumentava cada vez suas funções burocráticas e necessitava de mais profissionais para trabalhar nessa organização. Desta maneira, havia uma maior necessidade da educação, para formar pessoas apropriadas para lidar com tais cargos. Assim, também os professores passaram a concorrer entre si.

A educação privada era livre do Estado com relação à preparação dos professores, mas não livre ao se tratar da instrução.

As classes governantes incentivavam o ensino superior, colocando-o como um “instrumento vital para o seu próprio domínio”, entretanto, os professores primários continuavam a ser desprezados.

Antes do século V, os professores não eram funcionários do Estado, mas as cidades custeavam (por ordem dele) os salários dos retores e filósofos; estas também ofereciam concursos para nomeá-los. Entretanto, o Imperador Juliano começou a intervir na nomeação dos professores, porque ficou receoso de que os cristãos se apossassem da educação oferecida até então no Império romano. Assim, a educação passa a ser cargo do Estado e, posteriormente, vai ser proibido qualquer ensino que não fizesse parte do monopólio estatal. “Os funcionário públicos se formavam nas escolas, e era com essa finalidade, e não por outro motivo, que o Estado se preocupava em ensinar”.

            “Apenas surgiu na história o ensino oficial, e já apareceu em seguida a inevitável comparação com o exército. O corpo de professores é um regimento que defende, como o militar, is interesses do estado, e que caminha com ele ao mesmo passo”.

 

Fonte: PONCE, Aníbal. Educação e luta de classes. 21 ed., São Paulo: Cortez, 2005, p.61-81.


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